Author Archives: Emily Rafferty

About Emily Rafferty

I am the BMA's Head Librarian and Archivist and have worked in the Library/Archives since 2000. I love digging into the BMA's history and helping people find information.

Baltimore’s First Exhibition of Work by African American Artists

Throughout my years working at the BMA, I’ve heard much about the museum’s 1939 exhibition, Contemporary Negro Art.  As one of the earliest exhibitions of the work of African American artists in a major American art museum, the Library and Archives regularly receives questions about it.  Sorting through a box of BMA publications recently, I was surprised to find this invitation which, although it doesn’t have anything to do with the publications, does provide some important context to the 1939 exhibition and the history of early twentieth century African American art in Baltimore.


Invitation, First Negro Art Exhibit, Douglass High School, 1926. Archives and Manuscripts Collections, The Baltimore Museum of Art.

Held more than a decade before the BMA’s exhibition, the First Negro Art Exhibit was by all accounts the first exhibition in Baltimore solely of the work of African American artists.  According to articles in The Sun, the exhibition featured artists Augusta Savage, Marion Bagley, Clifton Thompson Hill, Laura Wheeler, Allan Freelon, William McKnight Farrow, Charity Govens, Caroline Cook, and Terrevous L. Douglas.  Alain Locke (author of the essay in the 1939 exhibition catalogue) spoke at Douglass High School in conjunction with the exhibition.  It’s notable that the participating artists came from Philadelphia, Chicago, New York, and Washington, D.C. rather than Maryland, and many were already fairly well known nationally.  Similar exhibitions appeared in major cities across the US in the 1920s and if you’re interested in learning more about them, I recommend reading Bridget R. Cooks’ Exhibiting Blackness: African Americans and the American Art Museum (2011).

Following Baltimore’s 1926 exhibition, more opportunities for African American artists to show their work slowly started to appear in the city, though very often separate from the work of white artists.  In 1928, the Charcoal Club announced that its spring exhibition, one of the highlights of Baltimore’s art scene at the time, would not be juried, allowing African American artists to enter.  According to a March 16, 1928 article in The Sun, “Should…Negro artists and sculptors enter the exhibition it will mark the first time they have participated in an exhibition held under white auspices.”  In 1931, members of the Baltimore chapter of the Omega Psi Phi fraternity organized an exhibition at the Pitcher Street Branch of the Enoch Pratt Free Library featuring, among many other things, paintings and works on paper by African American artists on loan from the collections of Howard University and the Afro-American newspaper.  Artwork by African Americans was again exhibited at high schools in Baltimore in 1932, this time organized by the Harmon Foundation, the same group that put together the BMA’s exhibition in 1939.

Several years later, in 1937, the BMA’s Board of Trustees organized the Committee of the City, a Baltimore-wide group with representatives from nearly every imaginable organization including prominent African Americans Sarah Collins Fernandis, Vivian Cook, Lillie M. Jackson, Clarence M. Mitchell, Jr., Carl Murphy, and Harry T. Pratt.  The committee members surveyed their organizations and reported back about what types of exhibitions and programs were of interest, eventually leading to popular exhibitions such as Labor in Art, Religious Art, and Contemporary Negro Art.


Boys and sculpture, Contemporary Negro Art exhibition, The Baltimore Museum of Art, 1939. Photograph Collection, Archives and Manuscripts Collections, The Baltimore Museum of Art. AN6.40

I’m looking forward to learning more about this fascinating piece of Baltimore’s history and would love to hear from you about it.

Celebrating the BMA’s Monuments Men


Charles Parkhurst in the BMA Education Department, October 1965. People Photograph Collection, Archives and Manuscripts Collections, The Baltimore Museum of Art. PCP.5.36.1

Tracy Lewis, BMA Archives Intern

When I first sat down with the BMA Archives’ People Photograph Collection, I felt like a stranger lost in a crowd. As a Library and Archives intern on a project funded by the National Historical Publications and Records Commission (NHPRC), I have been rearranging and processing photographs, negatives, and slides of people who have are in some way connected to the Museum, whether they be staff, members of the Board of Trustees, speakers, or visitors to the galleries. Over the past seven months, I have gotten to know these people in the crowd. I even know some of their birthdays, such as former Museum Director Charles Parkhurst, who was born on January 23, 1913. He and former Associate Director Denys P. Myers were both Monuments Men.

Men and women who have served in the US Armed Forces have not only served their country, but also the world’s art. In 1943, President Franklin D. Roosevelt established the Monuments, Fine Arts, and Archives Section (MFAA) of the Civil Affairs and Military Government Divisions of the Allied Armies. Their story made popular by the 2014 film starring Matt Damon and George Clooney, the Monuments Men were 345 volunteer museum directors, curators, art historians, artists, architects, educators, and other experts from 14 nations. The MFAA selected them to retrieve, protect, and return cultural artifacts that had been looted by Nazi forces during World War II.


Denys Peter Myers, June 1961. People Photographs Collection, Archives and Manuscripts Collections, The Baltimore Museum of Art. PCP.2.68.1

An architectural historian and Episcopalian deacon who worked at the Museum from 1959 until 1965, Denys P. Myers helped Lt. John Skilton to salvage the Trepolo ceiling in the Residenz Palace in Würzberg, Germany. Allied bombing in 1945 had destroyed part of the ceiling of the palace and left Trepolo’s painting Olympus and the Four Continents exposed to the elements. Skilton and his crew scoured the region for lumber and rebuilt the ceiling. Restoration of the palace wasn’t completed until 1990.

Parkhurst, Director of the BMA from 1962 until 1970, served as a Navy gunnery officer in the Mediterranean prior to his appointment as deputy chief of the MFAA section of the US Military Government in Germany around the end of the war. France named Parkhurst a Chevalier in the Legion of Honor in 1948 for his contribution to the reclamation of the art stolen by the National Socialists. On November 7, 1945, Parkhurst and 24 other military officers signed the Wiesbaden Manifesto in protest to a US government directive that ordered the Monuments Men to ship 202 German-owned paintings held at the Wiesbaden Collecting Point to the National Gallery of Art. In a 1982 interview, Parkhurst said he and his fellow officers likened the federal government’s demand to the very looting that instigated their mission.

Parkhurst wholeheartedly believed in the responsibility of a museum to educate its visitors. In his first annual report to the Board of Trustees, excerpts of which were published in The Baltimore Museum of Art News in 1964, the Director listed several objectives for the museum. One of those objectives, he said should be “to broaden and to enrich the visitor’s knowledge of the world, particularly of his own cultural heritage; but also to shed light upon cultures other than his own which otherwise he might not recognize, let alone understand.”  Without his and Myers’ efforts to rescue European art from the plundering of the Nazis, these cultural treasures might not exist for museum visitors worldwide to learn about today. The experiences that Parkhurst, Myers, and the many other individuals who are pictured in the People Photograph Collection have brought to the Museum are treasures in themselves that add a dynamic dimension to the art displayed in the BMA’s galleries. Preservation of the photographs and other records in the BMA Archives make their stories available so that others may learn about and understand their legacy to the Museum.

Spatial Recognition

Print Exhibition Room, circa 1932-1940. Buildings and Grounds Photographs Collection, Archives and Special Collections, Baltimore Museum of Art. BGP003_002.

Print Exhibition Room, circa 1932-1940. Buildings and Grounds Photographs Collection, Archives and Special Collections, Baltimore Museum of Art. BGP003_002.

Melissa Wertheimer, BMA Archives intern

My love for archival research and processing began during my graduate studies at the Peabody Institute where I studied flute and piccolo. I’ve worked in the Peabody Institute Archives with special collections of music manuscripts, photographs, recordings, and ephemera. At the Walters Art Museum Archives, my work with curatorial records and special collections led to a lecture about the museum’s own Monuments Man. I was thrilled to expand my historical knowledge of Baltimore’s great artistic institutions during my five-month internship in the BMA Archives.

My first project at the BMA Archives was sponsored by the National Historical Publications and Records Commission (NHPRC): processing the photographs, negatives, and slides related to the BMA’s architectural history. The Buildings and Grounds Photographs Collection provides a visual timeline of the museum and the surrounding property’s physical growth, architectural changes, renovations, and various uses.

To boil down the contents of this collection to one word, it is all about space: why we create it, who it’s for, how it’s used, what it represents, and what the literal and figurative boundaries are. As a budding archivist in 2015 Baltimore, these questions hold particular relevance as I watch my adopted Baltimore home evolve. I’ve lived here for seven years, and I can’t help but notice that this city’s abundance of historical architecture serves as a quiet, nostalgic onlooker to change. I find it ironic and poetic that change is the consistent tie between old and new.

As a trained musician, especially a performer of contemporary music, these philosophical questions about space are vital to my understanding of artistic intent and creative musical programming.  When I perform, the space itself is important to me. Not merely the venue, but the layout of the space, the acoustics, and the allowance for movement. Professional musicians are used to adjusting for acoustics; the amount of reverb in a space directly affects how fast or slow a piece can be played without muddiness. But, I often feel the experience of sharing music in spaces with others falls short because the audience is a faraway clump of people. I’ve found that the slightest adjustments in performer/audience proximity and seat orientation make a world of difference. I even move about a space as I perform if that choice enhances the musical experience. I play with space in these ways to not only enhance the “weirdness” or “novelty” of a contemporary work, but also to breathe new life into canonical repertoire. In these ways, the concept of space itself is a vehicle for change.

During the four months I worked on the Buildings and Grounds Photographs Collection, one space struck me more than any other to mirror changes at the BMA: the Garden Room (not currently accessible to the public). Depending upon the decade, it could be called many other names: the Print Exhibition Room, the Members Room, the Sales and Rental Gallery, or the Café. Most recently, the Garden Room served as a temporary visitor’s entrance during the Historic Merrick Entrance renovation. This easily adaptable space is located on the ground floor of the BMA’s original John Russell Pope Building with the entrance facing onto the west museum grounds.

The story of this space is best told by the archival photographs themselves. I hope you enjoy the images and that they inspire you to consider the ideas of space and change as you move about any city you call home.


Members Room, 1940s. Buildings and Grounds Photographs Collection, Archives and Special Collections, Baltimore Museum of Art. BGP004_001.


Sales and Rental Gallery Publicity Photograph, 1955. Buildings and Grounds Photographs Collection, Archives and Special Collections, Baltimore Museum of Art. BGP006_001.


Museum Café, 1969 Apr. Buildings and Grounds Photographs Collection, Archives and Special Collections, Baltimore Museum of Art. PC_Cafe1969Apr.

Contact me through my website,  Let’s nerd out together.

Juried and Invitational Exhibitions at the BMA


First Annual Exhibition of Maryland Painters, Sculptors, and Printmakers exhibition, The Baltimore Museum of Art, 1933

As the recently announced 2015 Janet & Walter Sondheim Artscape Prize finalists prepare for their exhibition at the BMA this summer, I am working with the Archives’ Juried and Invitational Exhibitions Records and giving much thought to the incredible creative output of Maryland’s artists over the past century and the BMA’s role in displaying it.  From the moment the BMA opened its doors in 1923, opportunities for local artists to exhibit their work were a part of each year’s schedule of exhibitions.  With the opening of the John Russell Pope building in 1929, the BMA was able to develop its own exhibitions and expand its relationship with local artists.  The records I am processing as part of the Library and Archives’ NHPRC grant project document group exhibitions such as the BMA’s Maryland and Regional Artists Exhibitions, the Baltimore International Salon of Photography, and annual exhibitions of the work of members of the Baltimore Water Color Club and the Artists’ Union of Baltimore.

This week I am nearing the end of arranging and describing the largest part of the records, the Maryland and Regional Artists Exhibitions files (21 boxes of material).  The files document a long-running series of exhibitions of the work of local and regional artists organized by the BMA beginning in 1933.  Following a highly successful series of solo exhibitions at the Museum in 1930 to 1932, space considerations and the number of artists in the state interested in exhibiting work led to the decision to instead hold a major group exhibition for Maryland artists.  Although it wasn’t long before the solo exhibitions started up again, the Maryland and Regional Artists exhibitions continued for nearly 60 years.

Exhibition catalog, Maryland Artists Twentieth Annual Exhibition, The Baltimore Museum of Art, 1952

Exhibition catalog, Maryland Artists Twentieth Annual Exhibition, The Baltimore Museum of Art, 1952

The contents of the files for each exhibition vary, but most contain material about the logistics of bringing artwork into the BMA and hanging it on the walls, facilitating purchases, and returning the work that remained after the exhibition.  Cards or lists of entries provide information about the work each artist entered.  Some files also contain correspondence with artists, jurors, and museum visitors–complaints and praise for the most part.  Through these letters, it has been interesting to note how each year the challenges of coordinating the exhibitions shifted as the BMA’s staff worked to weather difficulties such as World War II and changes in artistic influences as new art movements made their way to Baltimore.

Perhaps surprising to those who aren’t from Maryland is the number of nationally-known artists who worked in the area between 1933 and 1992: Grace Hartigan, Morris Louis, Lowell Nesbitt, Martin Puryear, Amalie Rothschild, Anne Truitt, and May Wilson, to name a few.  All submitted work to the Maryland and Regional Artists Exhibitions at least once.  Jurors for the exhibitions also included influential artists, critics, and curators such as Max Weber, Betty Parsons, Richard Tuttle, Sam Hunter, and Dore Ashton.


Grace Hartigan, Maryland Artists Invitational exhibition, The Baltimore Museum of Art, 1968

In an effort to please artists and visitors and to support its small staff, the BMA revised the format of the exhibitions several times.  A separate exhibition for Maryland crafts was held in 1952, 1953, and 1954.  Beginning in 1953, regional exhibitions including the works of artists from Washington, D.C. and Delaware alternated years with the strictly Maryland exhibitions.  An invitational was attempted in 1968, followed by a move to biennial exhibitions from 1974-1985.  The exhibitions ultimately ended with Maryland by Invitation in 1992 which featured the work of artists Jeff Gates and Lisa Lewenz, but the commitment to Maryland artists lives on through the Sondheim exhibitions, the Baker Artists’ Prize exhibitions, and the Front Room exhibitions in the Contemporary Wing—Baltimore-born artist Sara VanDerBeek’s work is on view now!

Improving access to the BMA Archives holdings

This is the second of two posts introducing the BMA Archives. The first post covered what’s in the Archives, and how to find resources and materials.

Men viewing decoration near Museum entrance, The Art of Mary Cassatt exhibition, The Baltimore Museum of Art, 1941

As you browse through the finding aids for the BMA’s institutional records, you may notice that sometimes there isn’t much information beyond series descriptions.  What if you are researching the work of Mary Cassatt and would like to see photographs of related exhibition installations? You wouldn’t be able to tell from the finding aid that the Archives does have photos of the 1941 exhibition The Art of Mary Cassatt.

Over the past decade, the Archives’ staff—along with volunteers, interns, and Work Study students—has been hard at work improving access to the holdings. This work was given a huge push forward with a 2011 grant from the National Historical Publications and Records Commission (NHPRC) that allowed staff to process the entire backlog of nearly 1,000 linear feet of records and create a records management program to manage the flow of material coming to the Archives.  Finding aids are now available for all institutional record groups and manuscripts both on the BMA’s website and via ArchiveGrid.  General descriptions are searchable on WorldCat and the BMA Library’s catalogue.

Baltimore Museum of Art Booth, Baltimore City Fair, 1973

In July of 2014, the BMA received a second grant from the NHPRC that will allow staff to improve upon the work already done and ensure that detailed information is available for the most heavily used materials. The project team will process at either the folder or item level five key collections:

We will also create a plan for the long term digital preservation of material we have already digitized and plan to digitize in the future.

Bianca Hand, Archives Intern, The Baltimore Museum of Art, 2014

Summer Internships with the BMA Archives

If you’re a library school student or recent grad, keep an eye on the BMA’s Employment page for information about the summer internship application process. The NHPRC generously provided funding for six interns to assist with the project. Two interns worked with us in fall 2014 and we hope to have more work with us this spring as well as over the summer. Along with the interns, grant-funded Project Archivist Alexanne Brown joined us in January 2015 and will be responsible for processing the majority of the collections listed above.  Alexanne and the rest of the project team are now hard at work processing the Photograph Collection, Audiovisual Collection, and Juried and Invitational Exhibitions Records.  Look for more posts about what we find in the coming months!


Introduction to the BMA Archives

LS1.2sThe Baltimore Museum of Art, from the south, circa 1940.

Everywhere you look at the BMA, there are connections to history—from the architecture of the John Russell Pope building to the re-creation of Claribel Cone and Etta Cone’s apartments. The Museum’s Archives is reflective of this, with a rich array of materials documenting the history of the BMA, as well as the art collectors and other people who have helped shape it from 1914 to the present. Whether you have a scholarly research question or are just curious about the BMA’s past, helpful resources can be found in the Archives.

What’s in the Archives?
The Archives’ collection comprises approximately 1,400 linear feet or almost four football fields of primary source material such as letters, diaries, meeting minutes, photographs, films, audio recordings, architectural plans, research notes, and financial documents.  These are divided into two distinct parts: institutional records and manuscripts. The former are records of the activities of the Museum’s staff, volunteers, and trustees. For example, the Prints, Drawings and Photographs Department Records include curators’ research for exhibitions, correspondence about purchasing works of art, and logistical documents for the Print Fairs.  Manuscripts, on the other hand, are the personal papers of art collectors and others with a connection to the Museum. Claribel Cone and Etta Cone’s papers include account books listing their purchases while traveling in Europe, letters from Claribel to Etta describing life in Germany during World War I, and photographs of their apartments in Baltimore.


Front room, Claribel Cone’s apartment (8B), Marlborough Apartments, Baltimore, Maryland

How do I find resources and materials?
To learn more about the materials in the Archives, start by reviewing the finding aids, which are easily keyword searchable with your browser’s find function (Ctrl+f). Because of the volume of material inside each box listed in the finding aids (often hundreds of items), you will find general descriptions of categories of materials called series or sub-series—correspondence, financial records, research, etc. When the significance of the materials warrants more information, detailed folder or item descriptions may also be included.

If you spot something that seems helpful to your research, please contact us. You don’t need to be a BMA member to visit the Archives. All researchers are welcome, by appointment, Monday through Friday, between 9 am and 5 pm.  To make an appointment, call (443) 573-1778 or email       


Letter from Samuel Putnam Avery to George A. Lucas, August 25, 1895